Tag: magnesium

Amino Acids


Amino Acid- Protein Hydrolysate : It is widely used as base fertilizer in all kinds of agricultural crops. It contains seventeen free L-amino acids including 6 kinds of necessary amino acids such as L-Threonine, L-Valine,L-Methionine, L-Isoleucine, L-Pheinylalanine and L-Lysine,which are 15% of total amino acids;   6% of total are semi necessary amino acids(e. G. L-Arginine and L-Histidine). The content of total amino acids is about 40% to 80% depend on purity.   Advantage of Amino Acids in Agriculture:-

  • Improve absorption through the roots
  • Increase crop resistance to adverse condition ( drought, frost, salinity, hail, disease)
  • Improve flavour, colour, firmness and preservation of fruit
  • Help the plant to produce its own protein easier, saving energy required to produce amino acids to benefit formation of the proteins and plant cells.

Protein Hydrolysate (Amino Acid mixture) are the basic building blocks of living cells. Proteins are formed by sequence of amino acids. The amino acids are organic substances consisting of an asymmetric carbon to which are bounded an amino group(-NH2),a carboxylic group (-COOH) & two characteristics radicals of each amino acid (R & R”) Although there are number of amino acids from the agricultural point of view alpha amino acids are of great interest. Plants synthesize amino acids from primary elements, carbon & oxygen obtained from atmosphere & hydrogen from water in the soil, forming carbon hydrates by means of photosynthesis and combining it with the nitrogen which plants obtain from soil thus producing amino acids. Plants absorb nitrogen through its roots in the form of nitrate small percentage in the form of ammonia which become nitrite & then ammonia.   The ammonia reacts with biochemical cellular compounds giving rise to glutamic acid & aspartic acid. Amino acids which through transmission gives rise to the other amino acids .By means of activating enzymes specific to each amino acid the process of protein synthesis begins in the cellular protoplasm. The process of synthesis of amino acids from nitrate obtained from the soil requires a great amount of energy. If there is a deficiency of nitrogen in the soil due to poor nitrification or if the conditions of stress are present such as drought, frost, pest attack it makes the process difficult causing serious prejudicial effect on the yield. This can be allivated by applying Amino Acids directly to cells i.e. through foliar spraying. Our Amino Acid Mixture is available in powder as well as liquid form & used in number of agricultural formulation like Zyme, Biostim, Amino acid base Micro nutrient Chelates, & other plant growth promoter (PGR) formulations as a organic source of nitrogen.  

Mineral – Amino Acid Complex: – like Zn, Mn, Fe, Cu, Mg,& B & in Combination For Spray & Soil Application.   The amino acids (Protein) provide organic nitrogen along with minerals in complex form which is actively absorb & utilized by plant. Plants absorb the amino acids (Hydrolysed Protein) along with mineral ions quickly & easily. Digested protein s has a chelating effect on minerals. When applied together with minerals, the absorption and transportation of minerals inside the plant is easier. This effect is due to the chelating action and to the effect of cell membrane permeability. L – Glycine & L – Glutamic acid are known to be very effective chelating agents. This is present in Organic Mineral Amino Acid complex  formulation. The Hydrolysed Protein plays active role in respiratory function. The Hydrolysed Protein Mineral Complex contain all essential amino acids & minerals, which are precursors of Phytohormones & other growth substances & accelerate the Metabolic, & Physiological activity of plant. The application of Protein, Metal Complex before, during and after the stress conditions supplies the plants with Amino Acids & Minerals which are directly related to stress physiology and thus has a preventing and recovering effect. The Hydrolysed Protein – Mineral Complex helps to boost up energy metabolism in the plant.

Benefits: Mineral – Amino Acid Complex is a readymade & easily available source of nutrition. It helps in pollination & fruit formation. Increases chlorophyll concentration & boosts the photosynthesis activity. It has a high percentage of biological value & nutritive value. No inorganic nitrogen is present. Excess dose is non-toxic as it is organic source. The rate of absorption of these Complexes of Amino Acids is found to be many times faster than ordinary salts of Minerals. These Complexes also meet amino acid requirements of plant. It is available in combination (Amino Acid with all mineral) as well as individual complex in bulk.

Area of application other than Agriculture: –   As Mentioned above and same is applicable to all other uses i.e. amino acid are building blocks of the all leaving substances, hence it can be widely use in the nutritional supplements in formulation of  Animal feed , aqua feed , Food preparation for human body  and as food for bacteria in fermentation industries.   Our process of Producing amino acid is enzyme hydrolysis, which only produces L-amino acids , which are having following merits over other process.

Amino Acid TechnicalPacking available
Amino Acid Powder – 90% 1Kg, 5Kg, 25Kg Papper bag
Amino Acid Powder – 80% 1Kg, 5Kg, 25Kg Papper bag
Amino Acid Powder – 60% 1Kg, 5Kg, 25Kg Papper bag
Amino Acid Liquid  – 40%500ml, 1Litre, 200Kg.
Amino Acid Liquid  – 30%500ml, 1Litre, 200Kg.
Amino Acid Liquid  – 20%500ml, 1Litre, 200Kg.



suckericide, sucker controller, tobacco suckericide, suckericide, tobacco plant growth, improves quality of tobacco
suckericide, sucker controller, tobacco suckericide, suckericide, tobacco plant growth, improves quality of tobacco



Sixteen plant food nutrients are essential for proper crop development. Each is equally important to the plant, yet each is required in vastly different amounts. These differences have led to the grouping of these essential elements into three categories; primary (macro) nutrients, secondary nutrients, and micronutrients.


Primary (macro) nutrients are nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. They are the most frequently required in a crop fertilization program. Also, they are need in the greatest total quantity by plants as fertilizer.


  • Necessary for formation of amino acids, the building blocks of protein
    · Essential for plant cell division, vital for plant growth
    · Directly involved in photosynthesis
    · Necessary component of vitamins
    · Aids in production and use of carbohydrates
    · Affects energy reactions in the plant


  • Involved in photosynthesis, respiration, energy storage and transfer, cell division, and enlargement
    · Promotes early root formation and growth
    · Improves quality of fruits, vegetables, and grains
    · Vital to seed formation
    · Helps plants survive harsh winter conditions
    · Increases water-use efficiency
    · Hastens maturity

· Carbohydrate metabolism and the break down and translocation of starches
· Increases photosynthesis
· Increases water-use efficiency
· Essential to protein synthesis
· Important in fruit formation
· Activates enzymes and controls their reaction rates
· Improves quality of seeds and fruit
· Improves winter hardiness
· Increases disease resistance

The secondary nutrients are calcium, magnesium, and sulphur. For most crops, these three are needed in lesser amounts that the primary nutrients. They are growing in importance in crop fertilization programs due to more stringent clean air standards and efforts to improve the environment.

· Utilized for Continuous cell division and formation
· Involved in nitrogen metabolism
· Reduces plant respiration
· Aids translocation of photosynthesis from leaves to fruiting organs
· Increases fruit set
· Essential for nut development in peanuts
· Stimulates microbial activity

· Key element of chlorophyll production
· Improves utilization and mobility of phosphorus
· Activator and component of many plant enzymes
· Directly related to grass tetany
· Increases iron utilization in plants
· Influences earliness and uniformity of maturity

· Integral part of amino acids
· Helps develop enzymes and vitamins
· Promotes nodule formation on legumes
· Aids in seed production
· Necessary in chlorophyll formation (though it isn’t one of the constituents)


The micronutrients are boron, chlorine, cooper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, and zinc. These plant food elements are used in very small amounts, but they are just as important to plant development and profitable crop production as the major nutrients. Especially, they work “behind the scene” as activators of many plant functions.


  • Essential of germination of pollon grains and growth of pollen tubes
    · Essential for seed and cell wall formation
    · Promotes maturity
    · Necessary for sugar translocation
    · Affects nitrogen and carbohydrate


  • Not much information about its functions
    · Interferes with P uptake
    · Enhances maturity of small grains on some soils


  • Catalyzes several plant processes
    · Major function in photosynthesis
    · Major function in reproductive stages
    · Indirect role in chlorophyll production
    · Increases sugar content
    · Intensifies color
    · Improves flavor of fruits and vegetables


  • Promotes formation of chlorophyll
    · Acts as an oxygen carrier
    · Reactions involving cell division and growth


  • Functions as a part of certain enzyme systems
    · Aids in chlorophyll synthesis
    · Increases the availability of P and CA


  • Required to form the enzyme “nitrate reductas” which reduces nitrates to ammonium in plant
    · Aids in the formation of legume nodules
    · Needed to convert inorganic phosphates to organic forms in the plant


  • Aids plant growth hormones and enzyme system
    · Necessary for chlorophyll production
    · Necessary for carbohydrate formation
    · Necessary for starch formation
    · Aids in seed formation


In addition to the 13 nutrients listed above, plants require carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, which are extracted from air and water to make up the bulk of plant weight.


Sulfur deficiency

Sulfur deficiency


Sulfur (S) is a part of every living cell and is a constituent of two of the 20 amino acids that form proteins. Unlike the other secondary nutrients like calcium and magnesium (which plants take up as cations), S is absorbed primarily as the S042- anion. It can also enter plant leaves from the air as dioxide (SO2) gas.

A chain is only as strong as its weakest link. Often overlooked, sulfur (S) can be that weak link in many soil fertility and plant nutrition programs. As of late, there are several reasons for the increased observance of S deficiencies and increased S needs.

Government regulations now restrict the amount of sulfur dioxide (SO2) that can be returned to the atmosphere from coal-burning furnaces. Most of the S is now removed from natural gas used in home heating and in industry. Also, catalytic converters in new automobiles remove most of the S that was previously returned to the atmosphere when S-containing gasoline was burned in automobiles. In addition, S-free compounds have replaced many of the insecticides and fungicides formerly applied to control insects and diseases in crops. As a result of these government restrictions, less S returns to the soil in rainfall.

Sulfur is supplied to plants from the soil by organic matter and minerals, but it’s often present in insufficient quantities and at inopportune times for the needs of many high-yielding crops. Organic matter ties up most S to the soil, where it remains unavailable to plants until soil bacteria convert it to sulfate (SO4-2) form. That process is known as mineralization.

Just like nitrate nitrogen (N), sulfate moves through the soil and can leach beyond the active root zone in some soils during heavy rainfall or irrigation. Sulfate may move back upward toward the soil surface as water evaporates, except in the sandier, coarse-textured soils that may be void of capillary pores. This mobility of sulfate S makes it difficult to calibrate soil tests and use them as predictive tools for S fertilization needs.

In the field, plants deficient in S show pale green coloring of the younger leaves, although the entire plant can be pale green and stunted in severe cases. Leaves tend to shrivel as the deficiency progresses.

Sulfur, like N, is a constituent of proteins, so deficiency symptoms are similar to those of N. Nitrogen-deficiency symptoms are more severe on older leaves, however, because N is a mobile plant nutrient and moves to new growth. Sulfur, on the other hand, is immobile in the plant, so new growth suffers first when S levels are not adequate to meet the plant’s need. This difference is important in distinguishing between N and S deficiencies, particularly in early stages.



Symptoms of deficiency can vary across crop species, but similarities exist for how nutrient insufficiency impacts plant tissue color and appearance. Nutrient deficiencies are commonly associated with the physical location on the plant
(i.e., whether the symptoms are primarily observed on older versus newly formed plant tissue), but these symptoms can spread as the severity of the deficiency progresses.


Potassium deficiency

Potassium deficiency

Potassium (K) is one of the essential nutrients and is taken up in significant amounts by crops. Potassium is vital to photosynthesis, protein synthesis and many other functions in plants. It’s classified as a macronutrient, as are nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). Plants take up K in its ionic form (K+).

While potassium (K) doesn’t constitute any plant structures or compounds, it plays a part in many important regulatory roles in the plant. It’s essential in nearly all processes needed to sustain plant growth and reproduction, including:

  • photosynthesis
  • translocation of photosynthates
  • plant respiration
  • protein synthesis
  • control of ionic balance
  • breakdown of carbohydrates, which provides energy for plant growth
  • regulation of plant stomata and water use
  • activation of plant enzymes
  • disease resistance and recovery
  • turgor
  • stress tolerance, including extreme weather conditions

Perhaps K’s most important function in the plant is that it can activate at least 80 enzymes that regulate the rates of major plant growth reactions. K also influences water-use efficiency. The process of opening and closing of plant leaf pores, called stomates, is regulated by K concentration in the guard cells, which surround the stomates. When stomates open, large quantities of K move from the surrounding cells into the guard cells. As K moves out of the guard cells into surrounding cells, stomates close, therefore K plays a key role in the process plants use to conserve water. Unlike nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), the other primary nutrients, K doesn’t form organic compounds in the plant. Its primary function is related to ionic strength of solutions inside plant cells. Potassium plays a key part in increasing yields and controlling disease because it improves a crop’s winter hardiness. It allows crops to get a quicker start in the spring and increases vigor so growth can continue throughout the growing season. Even though the period of K uptake varies with different plants, it’s still vital to maintain adequate K fertility levels in the soil because soil K doesn’t move much, except in sand or organic soils. Unlike N and some other nutrients, K tends to remain where fertilization puts it. When it does move, it’s mainly by diffusion and is always slow. Plants generally absorb the majority of their K at an earlier growth stage than they do N and P. Experiments on K uptake by corn have shown that 70 to 80 percent can absorb by silking time, and 100 percent at three to four weeks after silking. K translocation from the leaves and stems to the grain occurs in much smaller amounts than for P and N. The grain formation period is apparently not a critical one for the supply and uptake of K. Plants deficient in K don’t grow as robustly and are less resistant to drought, excess water, and high and low temperatures. They’re also more vulnerable to pests, diseases and nematode attacks. Potassium is also known as the “quality nutrient” because of its important effects on factors such as size, shape, color, taste, shelf life, fiber quality and other qualitative measurements. Potassium-deficiency symptoms show up in many ways. One of the most common K hunger signs is scorching or firing along leaf margins. Firing first appears on older leaves in most plants, especially grasses. Newer leaves will show hunger signs first on certain plants and under certain conditions. In addition to growing slowly, K-deficient plants’ root systems develop poorly and have weak stalks. Lodging is also common.   Symptoms of deficiency can vary across crop species, but similarities exist for how nutrient insufficiency impacts plant tissue color and appearance. Nutrient deficiencies are commonly associated with the physical location on the plant
(i.e., whether the symptoms are primarily observed on older versus newly formed plant tissue), but these symptoms can spread as the severity of the deficiency progresses.

Magnesium deficiency

Magnesium deficiency


Hidden in the heart of each chlorophyll molecule is an atom of magnesium (Mg), making the nutrient actively involved in photosynthesis. Magnesium also aids in phosphate metabolism, plant respiration and the activation of many enzyme seasons.

Plant growth requires energy, and lots of it. During germination alone, a bushel of wheat seed needs about 900 cubic feet of air and produces the same amount of energy needed by a tractor to plow an acre of land. Wheat and all crops require magnesium (Mg) to capture the sun’s energy for growth and production through photosynthesis. Chlorophyll, the green pigment in plants, is the substance through which photosynthesis occurs. Without chlorophyll, plants couldn’t manufacture food.

Magnesium is an essential component of chlorophyll, with each molecule containing 6.7 percent Mg. Magnesium also acts as a phosphorus (P) carrier in plants, which is necessary for cell division and protein formation. Phosphorus uptake couldn’t occur without Mg, and vice versa. So, Mg is essential for phosphate metabolism, plant respiration and the activation of several enzyme systems.

Soils usually contain less Mg than calcium because Mg is not absorbed as tightly by clay and organic matter and is subject to leaching. The supply of available Mg has been and continues to be depleted in some soils, but growers are noticing good responses to fertilization with Mg.

Magnesium’s availability to plants often depends on soil pH. Research has shown that Mg availability to the plant decreases at low pH values. On acidic soils with a pH below about 5.8, excessive hydrogen and aluminum can decrease Mg availability and plant uptake. At high pH values (above 7.4), excessive calcium may greatly increase Mg uptake by plants.

Magnesium is mobile within the plant and easily translocates from older to younger tissues. When deficiencies occur, the older leaves become damaged first, which may include color loss between the leaf veins, beginning at the leaf margins or tips and progressing inward, giving the leaves a striped appearance.


Symptoms of deficiency can vary across crop species, but similarities exist for how nutrient insufficiency impacts plant tissue color and appearance. Nutrient deficiencies are commonly associated with the physical location on the plant
(i.e., whether the symptoms are primarily observed on older versus newly formed plant tissue), but these symptoms can spread as the severity of the deficiency progresses.








Iron deficiency

Iron deficiency

Iron (Fe) is essential for crop growth and food production. Plants take up Fe as the ferrous (Fe2+) cation. Iron is a component of many enzymes associated with energy transfer, nitrogen reduction and fixation, and lignin formation.

Iron (Fe) is involved in the production of chlorophyll, and Fe chlorosis is easily recognized on Fe-sensitive crops growing on calcareous soils. Iron also composes many enzymes associated with energy transfer, nitrogen reduction and fixation, and lignin formation. Iron is associated with sulfur in plants to form compounds that catalyze other reactions.

Iron deficiencies are mainly manifested in yellowed leaves that result from low levels of chlorophyll. Leaf yellowing first appears on the younger, upper leaves in interveinal tissues. Severe Fe deficiencies cause leaves to turn completely yellow or almost white, and then brown as leaves die.

Iron deficiencies occur mainly in calcareous (high pH) soils, although some acidic, sandy soils low in organic matter also may be Fe-deficient. Cool, wet weather enhances Fe deficiencies, especially on soils with marginal levels of available Fe. Poorly aerated or highly compacted land also reduces Fe uptake by plants. Uptake of Fe decreases with increased soil pH, and is adversely affected by high levels of available phosphorus, manganese and zinc in the ground.

Since soil applications of most Fe sources are generally ineffective for correcting Fe deficiencies in crops, foliar sprays are the recommended method. The application rate should be high enough to wet the foliage, so spraying a 3 to 4 percent FeSO4 solution at 20 to 40 gallons per acre is typical. Including a sticker-spreader agent in the spray helps improve its adherence to the plant foliage for increased Fe absorption by the plant. Even so, correcting chlorosis may require more than one foliar Fe application.



Symptoms of deficiency can vary across crop species, but similarities exist for how nutrient insufficiency impacts plant tissue color and appearance. Nutrient deficiencies are commonly associated with the physical location on the plant
(i.e., whether the symptoms are primarily observed on older versus newly formed plant tissue), but these symptoms can spread as the severity of the deficiency progresses.


Organic Fertilizers

Sooner or later, every gardener discovers that for good results — whether in the vegetable garden, perennial border, or lawn — replenishing soil nutrients is necessary. And one of the key choices is whether to use organic or synthetic fertilizers. Synthetic fertilizers are manufactured. Organic fertilizers are derived from plants and animals, and from naturally occurring mineral fertilizers.

Why Use Organic Fertilizers?

One advantage of organic fertilizers is that their nutrients are doled out as a steady diet in sync with plant needs. Because the nutrients come from natural sources, a portion of them may be temporarily unavailable to plants until released by a combination of warmth and moisture — the same conditions plants need to grow. Released slowly, the nutrients from organic fertilizers are unlikely to burn plant roots or be leached away by water. And a single application may last a whole growing season.

You also might choose organic fertilizers for philosophical or environmental reasons. Organic fertilizers generally place fewer demands on energy resources, and they offer opportunities to recycle “garbage”.

The more concentrated a fertilizer (even an organic one), the less organic matter it contains. Fertilizers containing high concentrations of nitrogen, when used alone, can actually deplete soil organic matter, so if you use any such fertilizer, apply plenty of bulky organic matter, too. Dig materials such as straw, peat, compost, and leaves into the soil, or lay them on as mulch.

Naturally occurring mineral fertilizers are organic in the “not-synthetic” sense, but because they don’t contain organic matter, they’re not included in this list. Among them are Chilean nitrate, rock phosphate, greensand, and sulfate of potash magnesia.

Synthetic fertilizers do have some advantages. They cost less, are easier to transport, and are more uniform in nutrient content. All but controlled-release synthetic fertilizers are more quickly available to plants than organic fertilizers.

Why fertilize? Fertilizers are necessary make up for nutrients that are naturally carried down into the groundwater by rainfall, carried off into the air as gases, and carried into the kitchen by you. At least 16 nutrient elements are necessary for plant growth, but plants need three — nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (referred to by the elemental symbols N, P, and K) — in relatively large quantities. Most soils contain large reserves of the other 13 nutrients — especially calcium, magnesium, sulfur, iron, zinc, and manganese — that might also hitchhike along when you fertilize with “the big three.”

The only way to know for sure if your garden requires fertilizers is to have the soil tested. The cooperative extension services in most states test garden soil for a nominal fee. Also check telephone directories for “soil testing laboratories.”

When to Apply. The best times to apply organic fertilizers are early spring and fall — or even a few months — before planting, because that allows time for soil microbes to digest the organic matter and transform nutrients into forms plants can use.

How to Apply. When you apply organic fertilizers, there’s no need to dig them deep into the soil. Plants’s feeder roots are mostly near the soil surface, and low oxygen levels deep in the soil would retard microbial growth, slowing nutrient release from organic fertilizers. Make an exception to that no-dig rule if a soil test shows that phosphorus levels are low. This nutrient moves very slowly, so the only way to spread it quickly through the root zone is to mix it into the top 6 to 12 inches of soil.

Always wear a dust mask when you apply bonemeal, guano, or any other type of fertilizer that’s dusty. All dusts are potential lung irritants.

How Much to Apply. The actual amount to apply will vary, depending on the results of a soil test and the rate of nutrient release from a particular fertilizer. A rough rule is: Apply approximately 2 pounds of actual nitrogen (100 pounds of 10-10-10 contains 10 pounds of “actual” nitrogen) per 1,000 square feet, or 0.2 pounds per 100 square feet. Apply the other key nutrients plants take from soil — phosphorus and potassium — at about one-tenth this rate, unless a soil test specifies otherwise.

In catalogs and garden centers, you can find many different kinds of organic fertilizers. Other kinds are either custom blends, or materials that are available in limited quantities or only regionally. All fit into one of the basic categories — plant, animal, compost, or manure — that are further described below.

Plant Substances or By-products. Fertilizers that are plant substances or by-products are often rich in nitrogen, sometimes in potassium. These fertilizers can be considered renewable resources, but you should take into account