Author: Anant Patel

Lotus Export offers shade net, insect net, Tobacco Suckericide, Banana Suckericide, Sucker Control, Fungicide, Nematicide, Fulvic Acid, Humic Acid, Amino Acid, Seaweed, Cocopeat, Potassium Humate, Chelated Micronutrients, Brossinolides, Natca, Gibbrellic, Neem Oil, Neem Cake, Neem Pellets, Neem Powder, Azadirachtin, n acetyl thiazolidine 4 carboxylic acid, IAA, IBA
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Lotus Export offers calcium sulphate, gypsum, cas04, Tobacco Suckericide, Banana Suckericide, Sucker Control, Fungicide, Neamaticide, Fulvic Acid, Humic Acid, Amino Acid, Seaweed, Cocopeat, Potassium Humate, Chelated Micronutrients, Brossinolides, Natca, Gibbrellic, Neem Oil, Neem Cake, Neem Pellets, Neem Powder, Azadirachtin, Plastic Masterbatches, n acetyl thiazolidine 4 carboxylic acid, IAA, IBA

The Benefits of Calcium Sulphate Use in Soil & Agriculture   A good soil environment is vital for the growth and health of plants Tight and compacted soils may limit plant growth and cause disease problems.

Source: Lotus Export offers calcium sulphate, gypsum, cas04, Tobacco Suckericide, Banana Suckericide, Sucker Control, Fungicide, Neamaticide, Fulvic Acid, Humic Acid, Amino Acid, Seaweed, Cocopeat, Potassium Humate, Chelated Micronutrients, Brossinolides, Natca, Gibbrellic, Neem Oil, Neem Cake, Neem Pellets, Neem Powder, Azadirachtin, Plastic Masterbatches, n acetyl thiazolidine 4 carboxylic acid, IAA, IBA

Welcome to Lotus Export

Lotus Export offers Fertilisers, Tobacco Suckericides, Banana Suckericide, Tobacco Sucker Control, Organic Fertilizers, Humic Acid, Amino Acid, Potassium Humate, Chelated Micronutrients, Brossinolides, Natca, Gibbrellic, Neem Oil, Neem Cake, Neem Pellets, Neem Powder, Azadirachtin, Chemicals, Plastic Masterbatches.

Source: Welcome to Lotus Export

Azadirachtin Technical Powder

 

Azadirachtin Technical Powder
Azadirachtin EC 0.03 %        (Oil Based)
Azadirachtin EC 0.03 %        (Solvent Based)
Azadirachtin EC 0.15 %        (Oil Based)
Azadirachtin EC 0.15%         (Solvent Based)
Azadirachtin EC 0.3%
Azadirachtin EC 1.0%
Azadirachtin EC 3.0%
Azadirachtin EC 5.0%

Azadirachtin Natural 0-2250 ppm in Neem Oil, Azadirachtin Technical (10 – 44.5 %), Azadirachtin formulations from 300-50000 ppm, Azadirachtin Uses, Azadirachtin Mode of Action, Azadirachtin Chemistry, for Researchers, Universities & Companies Azadirachtin in Neem Oil (50-2250 ppm), in Extracts: Powder (7 % to 41.77 %) & Formulations (300 to 50000 ppm)

AZADIRACHTIN

Modern science has isolated & identified AZADIRACHTIN as the chief ingredient in neem seed responsible for the Action on the pests.

    • Empirical formula :C 35 H 44 O 16
    • Molecular weight :720
    • Chemical family :Tetranortriterpenoids

AZADIRACHTIN ACTS IN THE FOLLOWING WAY:

    • -Disturbing or inhibiting the development of the eggs,
    • larvae, or pupae.
    • Blocking the molting of larvae or nymphs.
    • Disturbing mating and sexual communication.
    • Repelling larvae and adults.
    • Deterring females from laying eggs.
    • Sterilising adults
    • Deterring feeding

SOURCES:

AZADIRACHTIN is Naturally found in neem seed Kernel. Depending on the method of extraction and the choice of the Neem Fruits / Seeds /

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Seaweed powder

ASCOPHYLLUM NODUSUM

SEAWEED EXTRACT POWDER

(100% Organic & Soluble)

The extracts of selected fresh seaweed (algae), Ascophyllum nodosum, which are natural, non-toxic, harmless and non-polluting, and rich in minor elements and natural growth hormones. It is a designated fertilizer for organic and non-polluting farming. Effect It is suitable for all crops and applications including field crops, potting soil, vegetable and flower gardens, orchards and turf grass. Promotes balanced growth of crops, boosts the capacity of immunity and resistance, improves crop quality and increase yield.

    • Greater nutritional value: Rapidly complement the nutrients, im­prove the quality of product.
    • Better root systems: Promoting the development of roots
    • Healthier foliage and fruit appearance: Thicken, enlarge and balance the leaf growth, supply well-balanced crop nutrients, stimulating cell division, improve the fruit set, improve blossom and fruit set.
    • Greater resistance to disease and pests: Containing antitoxins to fend off bacteria and viruses, and to repel insects. Helps plants to endure environmental stress
    • Improved seed germination: Promoting the development of shoots.
    • Natural soil conditioner: balance the fecundity of soil andrestore the soil conditions.
    • As formulation: seaweed extract can be used not only on crops, but also to formulate types of fertilizers. A little addition of seaweed extract on common fertilizer will height the quality greatly.

Technique: Our product be done base on biological & chemical processed and be extracted by Fermentation Process.

Application of Seaweed Extract Powder After being dissolved in neutral water by stirring. Seaweed extract can be applied for foliage spray and with irrigation water. It suits to irrigation system. After being diluted, it may be applied by mixing with farm chemicals, but please note that you can’t add acidic matter,the matter including bivalent metal ion and over bivalent, because these matters will react with our product.

Used of methods Irrigation, dosage: 10-15kgs/hectare total one farming season (or root irrigation rate is 1:1200-1500), and we recommend to apply 3-4 times every farming season according to the farm season. Root Irrigation methods include spray irrigation, drip irrigation, and flow irrigation.

Seed-soaking It also can be used to soak crop seed be­fore planting, suitable for the pre-germination of seeds, dilution rate is 1:2000-4000. And the time of soak is determined according to the thickness of seed skin. In general, it should be soaked 5-8h. It can reduce the mortality rate, using it for several minutes before transplanting shrubs, plants or trees.

Mixing Compatibility Soluble seaweed extract powder/flake is compatiblewith most, but not all, pesticides, growth regulators and micronutrients with regards to physical tank mixing and biologi­cal effects on the crop. However, we cannot accept any liability for any loss or damage as not all pesticides have been tested and because the efficacy of any mix will depend on, among other factors, the pesticide concerned, crop conditions, growth stage, weather, and volumes of water used.

Benzyl Adenine 6BA

N-6-Benzyl Adenine Tech Powder

We manufacture and supply a varied range of N-6-Benzyl Adenine Tech. Our range is valued for high quality and great performance.It is a colorless liquid and insoluble in water. We offer purest and chemically strong bromide.

We are engaged in offering N-6-Benzyl Adenine Tech Powder (Purity 99). This belongs to Cytokinin group plant growth regulator. It is applied to augment size and weight of berries and Grapes. Further it boosts sugar content in grapes and berries. It also augments early harvest and cell division process of Grapes, Vegetables, Citrus, Berries and other fruits. Thus increases size, sugar and weight in crops, vegetables & fruits

Dosage :  1 gm in 100 Liters of water

Packing Available : 1 Kg.,  5 Kgs,  & 25 Kgs.

Gibbrellic Acid

Gibbrellic Acid GA3 manufacturers & exporters – Lotus Export

Gibberellic Acid  GA3

Gibberellic acid is actually a group of related substances called gibberellins discovered as a metabolic byproduct of the fungus Gibberella fujikuroi, which causes the stems of growing plants or crops to elongate rapidly.

Gibberellic acid (GA3) is a very potent hormone whose natural occurrence in plants controls their development. Since GA3 regulates growth, applications of very low concentrations can have a profound effect. Timing is critical: too much GA3 may have an opposite effect from that desired; too little may require the plant to be repeatedly treated to sustain desired levels of GA3.

Benefits of Gibberellic Acid

  1. Overcoming dormancy. Treatment with high concentrations of GA3 is effective in overcoming dormancy and causing rapid germination of seed. Concentrations of about 2 ppm can cause tubers to sprout earlier.
  2. Premature flowering. If a plant is sufficiently developed, premature flowering may be induced by direct application of GA3 to young plants. This action is not sustained and treatment may have to be repeated. Formation of male flowers is generally promoted by concentrations of 10 to 200 ppm., female flowers by concentrations of 200 to 300 ppm. Concentrations of more than 600 ppm markedly suppresses initiation of both male and female flowers.
  3. Increased fruit set. When there is difficulty with fruit set because of incomplete pollination, GA3 may be effectively used to increase fruit set. The resulting fruit maybe partially or entirely seedless. GA3 has increased the total yield in greenhouse tomato crops both as a result of increased fruit set and more rapid growth of the fruit.
  4. Pollination within self-incompatible clones and between closely related species may sometimes be forced by the application of GA3 and cytokinin to the blooms at the time of hand pollination.
  5. Increased growth. GA3 applied near the terminal bud of trees may increase the rate of growth by stimulating more or less constant growth during the season. In a field experiment, the GA3 was applied as a 1% paste in a band around the terminal bud of trees. Treatment was repeated three times during the summer. Walnut tee growth was 8.5 ft. for treated trees, 1.5 ft. for untreated trees.
  6. Frost protection. Spraying fruit trees at full-blossom or when the blossoms begin to wither can offset the detrimental effects of frost.
  7. Root formation. GA3 inhibits the formation of roots in cuttings.

 

Tobacco Sucker

We at Lotus Export manufacturer, export & supply tobacco suckericide, suckericide, suckericides, tobacco sucker control, tobacco sucker & tobacco leaf weight and quality enhancer

AXE-11 liquid de-suckering agent is a contact type suckericide made from natural fattly

alcohols to control suckers in tobacco crops. Application of AXE-11 liquid suckericide

improves quality and quantity of tobacco crop. On application of AXE-11 liquid suckericide

labour cost is decreased and yield of tobacco increases by 25% – 35%.

AXE-11 will not leave any residues on the crop.
Note :
Topping stage is of importance for yield production in tobacco to improve plant growth, leaf size development, improved quantity and quality. Moreover, application of AXE – 11 suckericide in early button stage can control suckers better than flowering stage.

How to apply :

1 litre AXE-11 liquid de-suckering agent should be mixed with 20 litres water (1:20) Mix

thoroughly to form uniform mixture.

Apply the solution using an applicator after topping from top to bottom in clear weather

between 10.00am to 4.00pm

AXE-11 liquid de-suckering agent shall be applied on requirement.

Packing Available in 2.5 litre HDPE jerry can

Suckericide
Lotus Export offers Tobacco Suckericide, Banana Suckericide, Sucker Control, Fungicide, Neamaticide, Fulvic Acid, Humic Acid, Amino Acid, Seaweed, Cocopeat, Potassium Humate, Chelated Micronutrients, Brossinolides, Natca, Gibbrellic, Neem Oil, Neem Cake, Neem Pellets, Neem Powder, Azadirachtin, Plastic Masterbatches, n acetyl thiazolidine 4 carboxylic acid, IAA, IBA

Banana Sucker control

Banana Suckericide, Side Shoots remover, Sucker Controller

MUSA-8 de-suckering agent offered by us is an exclusive range of Banana Suckericide. Our range has contact type suckericide, which is made from natural fatty alcohols to eliminate suckers arising from the base of banana plants. Application of MUSA-8 suckericide eliminates banana base suckers within 5-10 days and improves quality and quantity of banana fruit.

 

On application of MUSA-8 suckericide labour cost is decreased and development of banana increases gradually. Yield of banana fruit increases by 25% – 35%

How to Apply

Keeping too many sucking plants will reduce yields. It is advisable to remove all suckers once the desired followers have been selected.
Firstly cut the unwanted suckers / side shoots near the mother plant 4” above the field level horizontally. After 30 minutes pierce the central part of the sucker with a knife and remove it gently to hold just 2 drops of MUSA-8 suckericide at the top. The treated suckers turns into brown/black in colour and in a few days suckers will be no more in existence.
 

Packing Available : 1 Litre, 5 Litres, 50 Litres & 200 Litres

 

Amino Acids

Amino Acid- Protein Hydrolysate : It is widely used as base fertilizer in all kinds of agricultural crops. It contains seventeen free L-amino acids including 6 kinds of necessary amino acids such as L-Threonine, L-Valine,L-Methionine, L-Isoleucine, L-Pheinylalanine and L-Lysine,which are 15% of total amino acids;   6% of total are semi necessary amino acids(e. G. L-Arginine and L-Histidine). The content of total amino acids is about 40% to 80% depend on purity.   Advantage of Amino Acids in Agriculture:-

  • Improve absorption through the roots
  • Increase crop resistance to adverse condition ( drought, frost, salinity, hail, disease)
  • Improve flavour, colour, firmness and preservation of fruit
  • Help the plant to produce its own protein easier, saving energy required to produce amino acids to benefit formation of the proteins and plant cells.

Protein Hydrolysate (Amino Acid mixture) are the basic building blocks of living cells. Proteins are formed by sequence of amino acids. The amino acids are organic substances consisting of an asymmetric carbon to which are bounded an amino group(-NH2),a carboxylic group (-COOH) & two characteristics radicals of each amino acid (R & R”) Although there are number of amino acids from the agricultural point of view alpha amino acids are of great interest. Plants synthesize amino acids from primary elements, carbon & oxygen obtained from atmosphere & hydrogen from water in the soil, forming carbon hydrates by means of photosynthesis and combining it with the nitrogen which plants obtain from soil thus producing amino acids. Plants absorb nitrogen through its roots in the form of nitrate small percentage in the form of ammonia which become nitrite & then ammonia.   The ammonia reacts with biochemical cellular compounds giving rise to glutamic acid & aspartic acid. Amino acids which through transmission gives rise to the other amino acids .By means of activating enzymes specific to each amino acid the process of protein synthesis begins in the cellular protoplasm. The process of synthesis of amino acids from nitrate obtained from the soil requires a great amount of energy. If there is a deficiency of nitrogen in the soil due to poor nitrification or if the conditions of stress are present such as drought, frost, pest attack it makes the process difficult causing serious prejudicial effect on the yield. This can be allivated by applying Amino Acids directly to cells i.e. through foliar spraying. Our Amino Acid Mixture is available in powder as well as liquid form & used in number of agricultural formulation like Zyme, Biostim, Amino acid base Micro nutrient Chelates, & other plant growth promoter (PGR) formulations as a organic source of nitrogen.  

Mineral – Amino Acid Complex: – like Zn, Mn, Fe, Cu, Mg,& B & in Combination For Spray & Soil Application.   The amino acids (Protein) provide organic nitrogen along with minerals in complex form which is actively absorb & utilized by plant. Plants absorb the amino acids (Hydrolysed Protein) along with mineral ions quickly & easily. Digested protein s has a chelating effect on minerals. When applied together with minerals, the absorption and transportation of minerals inside the plant is easier. This effect is due to the chelating action and to the effect of cell membrane permeability. L – Glycine & L – Glutamic acid are known to be very effective chelating agents. This is present in Organic Mineral Amino Acid complex  formulation. The Hydrolysed Protein plays active role in respiratory function. The Hydrolysed Protein Mineral Complex contain all essential amino acids & minerals, which are precursors of Phytohormones & other growth substances & accelerate the Metabolic, & Physiological activity of plant. The application of Protein, Metal Complex before, during and after the stress conditions supplies the plants with Amino Acids & Minerals which are directly related to stress physiology and thus has a preventing and recovering effect. The Hydrolysed Protein – Mineral Complex helps to boost up energy metabolism in the plant.

Benefits: Mineral – Amino Acid Complex is a readymade & easily available source of nutrition. It helps in pollination & fruit formation. Increases chlorophyll concentration & boosts the photosynthesis activity. It has a high percentage of biological value & nutritive value. No inorganic nitrogen is present. Excess dose is non-toxic as it is organic source. The rate of absorption of these Complexes of Amino Acids is found to be many times faster than ordinary salts of Minerals. These Complexes also meet amino acid requirements of plant. It is available in combination (Amino Acid with all mineral) as well as individual complex in bulk.

Area of application other than Agriculture: –   As Mentioned above and same is applicable to all other uses i.e. amino acid are building blocks of the all leaving substances, hence it can be widely use in the nutritional supplements in formulation of  Animal feed , aqua feed , Food preparation for human body  and as food for bacteria in fermentation industries.   Our process of Producing amino acid is enzyme hydrolysis, which only produces L-amino acids , which are having following merits over other process.

AMINO ACIDS  OBTAINED BY ENZYME HYDROLYSIS.
1 CONSISTS OF TWENTY AMINO ACIDS.
2 ALL AMINO ACIDS ARE IN L FORM (NATURAL FORM) & ARE ABSORBED QUICKLY & EASILY BY PLANTS.
3 NO CYCLIZATION OF GLUTAMINE WHICH IS IMPORTANT FOR ENERGY METABOLISM.
4 NO DESTRUCTION OF ASPARGINE WHICH HAS ACTIVE ROLE IN RESPIRATORY FUNCTION.
5 TRYPTOPHAN WHICH IS STARTING MATERIAL FOR SYNTHESIS OF AUXIN IS AVAILABLE IN L FORM.
6 SERINE & THREONINE ARE FREE & IN L FORM.
7 ASPARTIC ACID & GLUTAMIC ACID WHICH ARE VERY IMPORTANT AMINO ACIDS ARE AVAILABLE IN FREE L FORM FOR EASY ABSORPTION.
8 AMIDE NITROGEN IS NOT FORMED.
Amino Acid Technical Packing available
Amino Acid Powder – 90%  1Kg, 5Kg, 25Kg Papper bag
Amino Acid Powder – 80%  1Kg, 5Kg, 25Kg Papper bag
Amino Acid Powder – 60%  1Kg, 5Kg, 25Kg Papper bag
Amino Acid Liquid  – 40% 500ml, 1Litre, 200Kg.
Amino Acid Liquid  – 30% 500ml, 1Litre, 200Kg.
Amino Acid Liquid  – 20% 500ml, 1Litre, 200Kg.

 

Banana Suckericides

Banana Suckericide, Side Shoots remover, Sucker Controller

 

MUSA-8 de-suckering agent offered by us is an exclusive range of Banana Suckericide. Our range has contact type suckericide, which is made from natural fatty alcohols to eliminate suckers arising from the base of banana plants. Application of MUSA-8 suckericide eliminates banana base suckers within 5-10 days and improves quality and quantity of banana fruit.

 

On application of MUSA-8 suckericide labour cost is decreased and development of banana increases gradually. Yield of banana fruit increases by 25% – 35%

How to Apply

Keeping too many sucking plants will reduce yields. It is advisable to remove all suckers once the desired followers have been selected.
Firstly cut the unwanted suckers / side shoots near the mother plant 4” above the field level horizontally. After 30 minutes pierce the central part of the sucker with a knife and remove it gently to hold just 2 drops of MUSA-8 suckericide at the top. The treated suckers turns into brown/black in colour and in a few days suckers will be no more in existence.
 

Packing Available : 1 Litre, 5 Litres, 50 Litres & 200 Litres

 

 

 

Videos

suckericide, sucker controller, tobacco suckericide, suckericide, tobacco plant growth, improves quality of tobacco




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data-ad-client=”ca-pub-5600793296832451″
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Tobacco Sucker Control

 

AXE-11 liquid de-suckering agent is a contact type suckericide made from natural fattly
alcohols to control suckers in tobacco crops. Application of AXE-11 liquid suckericide
improves quality and quantity of tobacco crop. On application of AXE-11 liquid suckericide
labour cost is decreased and yield of tobacco increases by 25% – 35%.
AXE-11 will not leave any residues on the crop.

Note : Topping stage is of importance for yield production in tobacco to improve plant growth, leaf size development, improved quantity and quality. Moreover, application of AXE – 11 suckericide in early button stage can control suckers better than flowering stage.

How to apply:

1 litre AXE-11 liquid de-suckering agent should be mixed with 20 litres water (1:20) Mix thoroughly to form uniform mixture. Apply the solution using an applicator after topping from top to bottom in clear weather between 10.00am to 4.00pm

AXE-11 liquid de-suckering agent shall be applied on requirement.

 

Packing Available in 2.5 litre HDPE jerry can

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 






Boron Deficiency

Boron deficiency

 

 

 

Boron (B) exists primarily in soil solutions as the BO33- anion — the form commonly taken up by plants. One of the most important micronutrients affecting membrane stability, B supports the structural and functional integrity of plant cell membranes. Interestingly, while higher plants require B, animals, fungi and microorganisms don’t.

Micronutrients like Boron (B) are as important as the primary and secondary nutrients in plant nutrition. However, the amounts of micronutrients required for optimum nutrition are much lower. Micronutrient deficiencies are widespread because of increased nutrient demands from the more intensive cropping practices.

A primary function of B relates to cell wall formation, so B-deficient plants may be stunted. Sugar transport in plants, flower retention, and pollen formation and germination also are affected by B. Seed and grain production are reduced with low B supply. Boron-deficiency symptoms first appear at the growing points. This results in a stunted appearance (rosetting); barren ears due to poor pollination; hollow stems and fruit (hollow heart); brittle, discolored leaves, and loss of fruiting bodies. Boron deficiencies mainly occur in acidic, sandy soils in regions of high rainfall and in those with low soil organic matter. Borate ions are mobile in soil and can leach from the root zone. Boron deficiencies are more pronounced during drought periods, when root activity is restricted.

Recommended application rates of B are rather low (0.5 to 2 pounds per acres), but growers should follow them carefully, since the range between B deficiency and toxicity in most plants is narrow. Uniform application of B in the field is very important for that reason.

Soil tests and plant analyses make excellent diagnostic tools to monitor the micronutrient status of soils and crops. Helpfully, deficiency symptoms of these nutrients are highly visible in most economic crops, so growers can readily identify them and begin managing the problem. Micronutrient recommendations are based on soil and plant tissue analyses, the type of crop and expected yield, management level, and research results.

Include soil tests in B fertilization programs, first to assess the level of available B and later to determine possible residual effects (buildup). The most common soil test for B is the hot-water-soluble test. This test is more difficult to conduct than most other micronutrient soil tests, but most B-response data have been correlated with it.

 

Symptoms of deficiency can vary across crop species, but similarities exist for how nutrient insufficiency impacts plant tissue color and appearance. Nutrient deficiencies are commonly associated with the physical location on the plant
(i.e., whether the symptoms are primarily observed on older versus newly formed plant tissue), but these symptoms can spread as the severity of the deficiency progresses.


8 Aug

news

 

In the news from : LOTUS EXPORT.

We at Lotus Export manufacturer, export & supply tobacco suckericide, suckericide, suckericides, tobacco sucker control, tobacco sucker & tobacco leaf weight and quality enhancer

AXE-11 liquid de-suckering agent is a contact type suckericide made from natural fattly

alcohols to control suckers in tobacco crops. Application of AXE-11 liquid suckericide

improves quality and quantity of tobacco crop. On application of AXE-11 liquid suckericide

labour cost is decreased and yield of tobacco increases by 25% – 35%.

AXE-11 will not leave any residues on the crop.

 

Note : 
Topping stage is of importance for yield production in tobacco to improve plant growth, leaf size development, improved quantity and quality. Moreover, application of AXE – 11 suckericide in early button stage can control suckers better than flowering stage.

How to apply :

1 litre AXE-11 liquid de-suckering agent should be mixed with 20 litres water (1:20) Mix

thoroughly to form uniform mixture.

Apply the solution using an applicator after topping from top to bottom in clear weather

between 10.00am to 4.00pm

AXE-11 liquid de-suckering agent shall be applied on requirement.

 

Packing Available in 2.5 litre HDPE jerry can

 

 


16 ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS IN CROP DEVELOPMENT

Sixteen plant food nutrients are essential for proper crop development. Each is equally important to the plant, yet each is required in vastly different amounts. These differences have led to the grouping of these essential elements into three categories; primary (macro) nutrients, secondary nutrients, and micronutrients.

PRIMARY (MACRO) NUTRIENTS

Primary (macro) nutrients are nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. They are the most frequently required in a crop fertilization program. Also, they are need in the greatest total quantity by plants as fertilizer.

NITROGEN

  • Necessary for formation of amino acids, the building blocks of protein
    · Essential for plant cell division, vital for plant growth
    · Directly involved in photosynthesis
    · Necessary component of vitamins
    · Aids in production and use of carbohydrates
    · Affects energy reactions in the plant

PHOSPHORUS

  • Involved in photosynthesis, respiration, energy storage and transfer, cell division, and enlargement
    · Promotes early root formation and growth
    · Improves quality of fruits, vegetables, and grains
    · Vital to seed formation
    · Helps plants survive harsh winter conditions
    · Increases water-use efficiency
    · Hastens maturity

POTASSIUM
· Carbohydrate metabolism and the break down and translocation of starches
· Increases photosynthesis
· Increases water-use efficiency
· Essential to protein synthesis
· Important in fruit formation
· Activates enzymes and controls their reaction rates
· Improves quality of seeds and fruit
· Improves winter hardiness
· Increases disease resistance

SECONDARY NUTRIENTS
The secondary nutrients are calcium, magnesium, and sulphur. For most crops, these three are needed in lesser amounts that the primary nutrients. They are growing in importance in crop fertilization programs due to more stringent clean air standards and efforts to improve the environment.

CALCIUM
· Utilized for Continuous cell division and formation
· Involved in nitrogen metabolism
· Reduces plant respiration
· Aids translocation of photosynthesis from leaves to fruiting organs
· Increases fruit set
· Essential for nut development in peanuts
· Stimulates microbial activity

MAGNESIUM
· Key element of chlorophyll production
· Improves utilization and mobility of phosphorus
· Activator and component of many plant enzymes
· Directly related to grass tetany
· Increases iron utilization in plants
· Influences earliness and uniformity of maturity

SULPHUR
· Integral part of amino acids
· Helps develop enzymes and vitamins
· Promotes nodule formation on legumes
· Aids in seed production
· Necessary in chlorophyll formation (though it isn’t one of the constituents)

MICRONUTRIENTS

The micronutrients are boron, chlorine, cooper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, and zinc. These plant food elements are used in very small amounts, but they are just as important to plant development and profitable crop production as the major nutrients. Especially, they work “behind the scene” as activators of many plant functions.

BORON

  • Essential of germination of pollon grains and growth of pollen tubes
    · Essential for seed and cell wall formation
    · Promotes maturity
    · Necessary for sugar translocation
    · Affects nitrogen and carbohydrate

CHLORINE

  • Not much information about its functions
    · Interferes with P uptake
    · Enhances maturity of small grains on some soils

COPPER

  • Catalyzes several plant processes
    · Major function in photosynthesis
    · Major function in reproductive stages
    · Indirect role in chlorophyll production
    · Increases sugar content
    · Intensifies color
    · Improves flavor of fruits and vegetables

IRON

  • Promotes formation of chlorophyll
    · Acts as an oxygen carrier
    · Reactions involving cell division and growth

MAGANESE

  • Functions as a part of certain enzyme systems
    · Aids in chlorophyll synthesis
    · Increases the availability of P and CA

MOLYBDENUM

  • Required to form the enzyme “nitrate reductas” which reduces nitrates to ammonium in plant
    · Aids in the formation of legume nodules
    · Needed to convert inorganic phosphates to organic forms in the plant

ZINC

  • Aids plant growth hormones and enzyme system
    · Necessary for chlorophyll production
    · Necessary for carbohydrate formation
    · Necessary for starch formation
    · Aids in seed formation

 

In addition to the 13 nutrients listed above, plants require carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, which are extracted from air and water to make up the bulk of plant weight.

 


Zinc deficiency

 Zinc deficiency

Zinc (Zn) is taken up by plants as the divalent Zn2+ cation. It was one of the first micronutrients recognized as essential for plants and the one most commonly limiting yields. Although Zn is required in small amounts, high yields are impossible without it.

Zinc (Zn) deficiency is growing in the Midwest, and it’s more likely to occur in corn than soybean fields. This is happening in part to earlier planting of corn in cool and moist soil. Also, more residue resulting from conservation tillage and higher grain yields places added stress on seedlings to absorb Zn from soil.

Zinc is heavily involved in enzyme systems that regulate the early growth stages, and is vital for fruit, seed and root system development; photosynthesis; formation of plant growth regulators; and crop stress protection. Further, Zn is a team player with nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) in many plant-development processes.

Soils require Zn in very small amounts compared with N or K. Only about a half-pound of Zn is needed per acre for high-yield (180 bushels per acre) corn production. Sixty-bushel wheat needs about 0.28 pound of Zn per acre. Yet, lack of Zn can limit plant growth, just like N or K, if the soil is deficient or crop uptake is restricted.

In addition to being an essential component of various enzyme systems for energy production, Zn is required in protein synthesis and growth regulation. Zinc-deficient plants also exhibit delayed maturity. Since Zn is not mobile in plant, Zn-deficiency symptoms occur mainly in new growth. This lack of mobility in plants suggests the need for a constant supply of available Zn for optimum growth.

The most visible Zn-deficiency symptoms are short internodes (rosetting) and a decrease in leaf size. Chlorotic bands along the midribs of corn, mottled leaves of dry bean and chlorosis of rice are characteristic Zn-deficiency symptoms. Loss of lower bolls of cotton and narrow, yellow leaves in the new growth of citrus also have been identified as symptoms of Zn deficiency. Delayed maturity also indicates Zn-deficient plants.

Zinc loss takes place in many ways. Deficiencies are mainly found on sandy soils low in organic matter and on organic soils. They occur more often during cold, wet spring weather and are related to reduced root growth and activity. Periods of lower microbial activity decrease Zn release from soil organic matter. Zinc uptake by plants decreases with increased soil pH. High levels of available P and iron in soils also adversely affect the uptake of Zn.

 

 

Symptoms of deficiency can vary across crop species, but similarities exist for how nutrient insufficiency impacts plant tissue color and appearance. Nutrient deficiencies are commonly associated with the physical location on the plant
(i.e., whether the symptoms are primarily observed on older versus newly formed plant tissue), but these symptoms can spread as the severity of the deficiency progresses.


Sulfur deficiency

Sulfur deficiency

 

Sulfur (S) is a part of every living cell and is a constituent of two of the 20 amino acids that form proteins. Unlike the other secondary nutrients like calcium and magnesium (which plants take up as cations), S is absorbed primarily as the S042- anion. It can also enter plant leaves from the air as dioxide (SO2) gas.

A chain is only as strong as its weakest link. Often overlooked, sulfur (S) can be that weak link in many soil fertility and plant nutrition programs. As of late, there are several reasons for the increased observance of S deficiencies and increased S needs.

Government regulations now restrict the amount of sulfur dioxide (SO2) that can be returned to the atmosphere from coal-burning furnaces. Most of the S is now removed from natural gas used in home heating and in industry. Also, catalytic converters in new automobiles remove most of the S that was previously returned to the atmosphere when S-containing gasoline was burned in automobiles. In addition, S-free compounds have replaced many of the insecticides and fungicides formerly applied to control insects and diseases in crops. As a result of these government restrictions, less S returns to the soil in rainfall.

Sulfur is supplied to plants from the soil by organic matter and minerals, but it’s often present in insufficient quantities and at inopportune times for the needs of many high-yielding crops. Organic matter ties up most S to the soil, where it remains unavailable to plants until soil bacteria convert it to sulfate (SO4-2) form. That process is known as mineralization.

Just like nitrate nitrogen (N), sulfate moves through the soil and can leach beyond the active root zone in some soils during heavy rainfall or irrigation. Sulfate may move back upward toward the soil surface as water evaporates, except in the sandier, coarse-textured soils that may be void of capillary pores. This mobility of sulfate S makes it difficult to calibrate soil tests and use them as predictive tools for S fertilization needs.

In the field, plants deficient in S show pale green coloring of the younger leaves, although the entire plant can be pale green and stunted in severe cases. Leaves tend to shrivel as the deficiency progresses.

Sulfur, like N, is a constituent of proteins, so deficiency symptoms are similar to those of N. Nitrogen-deficiency symptoms are more severe on older leaves, however, because N is a mobile plant nutrient and moves to new growth. Sulfur, on the other hand, is immobile in the plant, so new growth suffers first when S levels are not adequate to meet the plant’s need. This difference is important in distinguishing between N and S deficiencies, particularly in early stages.

 

 

Symptoms of deficiency can vary across crop species, but similarities exist for how nutrient insufficiency impacts plant tissue color and appearance. Nutrient deficiencies are commonly associated with the physical location on the plant
(i.e., whether the symptoms are primarily observed on older versus newly formed plant tissue), but these symptoms can spread as the severity of the deficiency progresses.

 


Potassium deficiency

Potassium deficiency

Potassium (K) is one of the essential nutrients and is taken up in significant amounts by crops. Potassium is vital to photosynthesis, protein synthesis and many other functions in plants. It’s classified as a macronutrient, as are nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). Plants take up K in its ionic form (K+).

While potassium (K) doesn’t constitute any plant structures or compounds, it plays a part in many important regulatory roles in the plant. It’s essential in nearly all processes needed to sustain plant growth and reproduction, including:

  • photosynthesis
  • translocation of photosynthates
  • plant respiration
  • protein synthesis
  • control of ionic balance
  • breakdown of carbohydrates, which provides energy for plant growth
  • regulation of plant stomata and water use
  • activation of plant enzymes
  • disease resistance and recovery
  • turgor
  • stress tolerance, including extreme weather conditions

Perhaps K’s most important function in the plant is that it can activate at least 80 enzymes that regulate the rates of major plant growth reactions. K also influences water-use efficiency. The process of opening and closing of plant leaf pores, called stomates, is regulated by K concentration in the guard cells, which surround the stomates. When stomates open, large quantities of K move from the surrounding cells into the guard cells. As K moves out of the guard cells into surrounding cells, stomates close, therefore K plays a key role in the process plants use to conserve water. Unlike nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), the other primary nutrients, K doesn’t form organic compounds in the plant. Its primary function is related to ionic strength of solutions inside plant cells. Potassium plays a key part in increasing yields and controlling disease because it improves a crop’s winter hardiness. It allows crops to get a quicker start in the spring and increases vigor so growth can continue throughout the growing season. Even though the period of K uptake varies with different plants, it’s still vital to maintain adequate K fertility levels in the soil because soil K doesn’t move much, except in sand or organic soils. Unlike N and some other nutrients, K tends to remain where fertilization puts it. When it does move, it’s mainly by diffusion and is always slow. Plants generally absorb the majority of their K at an earlier growth stage than they do N and P. Experiments on K uptake by corn have shown that 70 to 80 percent can absorb by silking time, and 100 percent at three to four weeks after silking. K translocation from the leaves and stems to the grain occurs in much smaller amounts than for P and N. The grain formation period is apparently not a critical one for the supply and uptake of K. Plants deficient in K don’t grow as robustly and are less resistant to drought, excess water, and high and low temperatures. They’re also more vulnerable to pests, diseases and nematode attacks. Potassium is also known as the “quality nutrient” because of its important effects on factors such as size, shape, color, taste, shelf life, fiber quality and other qualitative measurements. Potassium-deficiency symptoms show up in many ways. One of the most common K hunger signs is scorching or firing along leaf margins. Firing first appears on older leaves in most plants, especially grasses. Newer leaves will show hunger signs first on certain plants and under certain conditions. In addition to growing slowly, K-deficient plants’ root systems develop poorly and have weak stalks. Lodging is also common.   Symptoms of deficiency can vary across crop species, but similarities exist for how nutrient insufficiency impacts plant tissue color and appearance. Nutrient deficiencies are commonly associated with the physical location on the plant
(i.e., whether the symptoms are primarily observed on older versus newly formed plant tissue), but these symptoms can spread as the severity of the deficiency progresses.

Phosphorus deficiency

Phosphorus deficiency

One of three primary nutrients, phosphorus (P) is essential for plant growth. No other nutrient can be substituted for P — a plant must access it to complete its normal production cycle.

Phosphorus is a vital component of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the “energy unit” of plants. ATP forms during photosynthesis, has P in its structure, and processes from the beginning of seedling growth through to the formation of grain and maturity.

The general health and vigor of all plants requires P. Some specific growth factors associated with P include stimulated root development, increased stalk and stem strength, improved flower formation and seed production, more uniform and earlier crop maturity, increased nitrogen (N)-fixing capacity of legumes, improvements in crop quality, and increased resistance to plant diseases.

Phosphorus deficiency is more difficult to diagnose than a deficiency of N or potassium (K). Crops usually display no obvious symptoms of P deficiency other than a general stunting of the plant during early growth, and by the time a visual deficiency is recognized, it may be too late to correct in annual crops.

Some crops, such as corn, tend to show an abnormal discoloration when P is deficient. The plants are usually dark bluish-green in color, with leaves and stem becoming purplish. The genetic makeup of the plant influences the degree of purple, and some hybrids show much greater discoloration than others. The purplish color results from the accumulation of sugars, which favors the synthesis of anthocyanin (a purplish pigment) that occurs in the leaves of the plant.

Phosphorus is highly mobile in plants and, when deficient, may translocate from old plant tissue to young, actively growing areas. Consequently, early vegetative responses to P are often observed. As a plant matures, P translocates into the fruiting areas of the plant, where the formation of seeds and fruit requires high energy. Phosphorus deficiencies late in the growing season affect both seed development and normal crop maturity. The percentage of the total amount of each nutrient taken up is higher for P late in the growing season than for either N or K.

 

Symptoms of deficiency can vary across crop species, but similarities exist for how nutrient insufficiency impacts plant tissue color and appearance. Nutrient deficiencies are commonly associated with the physical location on the plant
(i.e., whether the symptoms are primarily observed on older versus newly formed plant tissue), but these symptoms can spread as the severity of the deficiency progresses.

 

 

 

 

 

Oxygen

Oxygen

Oxygen (O) is responsible for cellular respiration in plants. Plants acquire O by breaking down carbon dioxide (CO2) during photosynthesis and end up releasing the majority of it as an unnecessary byproduct, saving a small portion for future energy.

 

Nitrogen deficiency

Nitrogen deficiency

Nitrogen (N) is essential for plant growth and is part of every living cell. It plays many roles in plants and is necessary for chlorophyll synthesis. Plants take up most of their N as the ammonium (NH4+) or nitrate (No3-) ion. Some direct absorption of urea can occur through the leaves, and small amounts of N are obtained from materials such as water-soluble amino acids.

Nitrogen (N) surrounds all plants in our atmosphere. In fact, every acre of the Earth’s surface is covered by thousands of pounds of this essential nutrient, but because atmospheric gaseous N presents itself as almost inert nitrogen (N2) molecules, this N isn’t directly available to the plants that need it to grow, develop and reproduce.Despite its identity as one of the most abundant elements on Earth, deficient N is probably the most common nutritional problem affecting plants worldwide.

Healthy plants often contain 3 to 4 percent N in their above-ground tissues. These are much higher concentrations than those of any other nutrient except carbon, hydrogen and oxygen – nutrients not of soil fertility management concern in most situations. Nitrogen is an important component of many important structural, genetic and metabolic compounds in plant cells. It’s a major element in chlorophyll, the compound by which plants use sunlight energy to produce sugars from water and carbon dioxide, or, in other words, photosynthesis.

Nitrogen is also a major component of amino acids, the building blocks of proteins. Some proteins act as structural units in plant cells, while others act as enzymes, making possible many of the biochemical reactions on which life is based. Nitrogen appears in energy-transfer compounds, such as ATP (adenosine triphosphate), which allows cells to conserve and use the energy released in metabolism. Finally, N is a significant component of nucleic acids such as DNA, the genetic material that allows cells (and eventually whole plants) to grow and reproduce. With the exception of photosynthesis, N plays the same roles in animals, too. Without N, there would be no life as we know it.

Adequate N produces a dark green color in the leaves, caused by high concentration of chlorophyll. Nitrogen deficiency results in chlorosis (a yellowing) of the leaves because of the declining chlorophyll. This yellowing starts first on oldest leaves, then develops on younger ones as the deficiency becomes more severe. Slow growth and stunted plants are also indicators of N deficiency. Small grains and other grass-type plants tiller less when N is in short supply.

Symptoms of deficiency can vary across crop species, but similarities exist for how nutrient insufficiency impacts plant tissue color and appearance. Nutrient deficiencies are commonly associated with the physical location on the plant
(i.e., whether the symptoms are primarily observed on older versus newly formed plant tissue), but these symptoms can spread as the severity of the deficiency progresses.

Nickel deficiency

Nickel

Nickel (Ni) was added to the list of essential plant nutrients late in the 20th century. Plants absorb Ni as the divalent cation Ni2+. It is required in very small amounts, with the critical level appearing to be about 1.1 parts per million.

 

 

 

 

Symptoms of deficiency can vary across crop species, but similarities exist for how nutrient insufficiency impacts plant tissue color and appearance. Nutrient deficiencies are commonly associated with the physical location on the plant
(i.e., whether the symptoms are primarily observed on older versus newly formed plant tissue), but these symptoms can spread as the severity of the deficiency progresses.

Molybdenum deficiency

Molybdenum deficiency

Molybdenum (Mo) is a trace element found in the soil and is required for the synthesis and activity of the enzyme nitrate reductase. Molybdenum is vital for the process of symbiotic nitrogen (N) fixation by Rhizobia bacteria in legume root modules. Considering Mo’s importance in optimizing plant growth, it’s fortunate that Mo deficiencies are relatively rare in most agricultural cropping areas.

Plants take up molybdenum (Mo) as the MoO42- anion. It’s required for the synthesis and activity of the enzyme nitrate reductase and. vital for the process of symbiotic nitrogen (N) fixation by Rhizobia bacteria in root nodules. It’s also needed to convert inorganic phosphorus (P) to organic forms in the plant.

Molybdenum deficiencies show up as general yellowing or stunting of the plant, and more specifically in the marginal scorching and cupping or rolling of leaves. An Mo deficiency can also cause N-deficiency symptoms in legume crops such as soybeans and alfalfa, because soil bacteria growing symbiotically in legume root nodules must have Mo to help fix N from the air.

Molybdenum deficiencies occur mainly in acidic, sandy soils in humid regions. Sandy soils, in particular, more typically lack Mo than finer-textured soils. Molybdenum becomes more available as soil pH goes up, the opposite of other micronutrients. Since Mo becomes more available with increasing pH, liming will correct a deficiency if soil contains enough of the nutrient. However, seed treatment is the most common way of correcting Mo deficiency because only very small amounts of the nutrient are required.

Heavy P applications increase Mo uptake by plants, while heavy sulfur (S) applications decrease Mo uptake. Applying heavy amounts of S-containing fertilizer on soils with a borderline Mo level may induce Mo deficiency.

Excessive Mo is toxic, especially to grazing animals. Cattle eating forage with excessive Mo content may develop severe diarrhea.

 

 

Symptoms of deficiency can vary across crop species, but similarities exist for how nutrient insufficiency impacts plant tissue color and appearance. Nutrient deficiencies are commonly associated with the physical location on the plant

(i.e., whether the symptoms are primarily observed on older versus newly formed plant tissue), but these symptoms can spread as the severity of the deficiency progresses.

Manganese deficiency

Manganese deficiency

Manganese (Mn) functions primarily as part of enzyme systems in plants. It activates several important metabolic reactions and plays a direct role in photosynthesis. Manganese accelerates germination and maturity while increasing the availability of phosphorus (P) and calcium (Ca).

Manganese (Mn) is taken up by plants as the divalent cation Mn2+. It functions primarily as a part of enzyme systems in plants. It activates several important metabolic reactions and plays a direct role in photosynthesis by aiding in chlorophyll synthesis. Manganese accelerates germination and maturity, while increasing the availability of phosphate (P) and calcium (Ca).

Manganese is immobile in plants, so deficiency symptoms appear first on younger leaves, with yellowing between the veins. Sometimes a series of brownish-black specks appear. In small grains, grayish areas occur near the base of younger leaves. Manganese deficiencies are most common in high organic matter soils and in those soils with naturally low Mn content and with neutral to alkaline pH. Delayed maturity is another deficiency symptom in some species. Whitish-gray spots on leaves of some cereal crops and shortened internodes in cotton are other Mn-deficiency symptoms.

Manganese deficiencies are often associated with high-pH soils, which may result from an imbalance with other nutrients such as Ca, magnesium (Mg) and Iron (Fe). Soil moisture also affects Mn availability. Deficiency symptoms are most severe on high organic matter soils during cool spring months when soils are waterlogged. Symptoms disappear as soils dry and temperatures warm.

Manganese deficiencies can be corrected in several ways:

  • If liming caused the deficiency, keep soil pH below 6.5.
  • Mix soluble salts, such as Mn sulfate (MnSO4), with starter fertilizer and apply in bands. High P starter fertilizer helps mobilize Mn into the plant.
  • A field deficiency symptom can be corrected by foliar application.

In some soils, an extremely acidic pH may cause Mn toxicity to crops. Soil pH must be 5.0 or lower before significant toxicity threatens. Yet, toxic Mn levels in plants have been measured up to a pH of 5.8. Liming will eliminate this problem.

 

 

Symptoms of deficiency can vary across crop species, but similarities exist for how nutrient insufficiency impacts plant tissue color and appearance. Nutrient deficiencies are commonly associated with the physical location on the plant
(i.e., whether the symptoms are primarily observed on older versus newly formed plant tissue), but these symptoms can spread as the severity of the deficiency progresses.

 

 

 

Magnesium deficiency

Magnesium deficiency

 

Hidden in the heart of each chlorophyll molecule is an atom of magnesium (Mg), making the nutrient actively involved in photosynthesis. Magnesium also aids in phosphate metabolism, plant respiration and the activation of many enzyme seasons.

Plant growth requires energy, and lots of it. During germination alone, a bushel of wheat seed needs about 900 cubic feet of air and produces the same amount of energy needed by a tractor to plow an acre of land. Wheat and all crops require magnesium (Mg) to capture the sun’s energy for growth and production through photosynthesis. Chlorophyll, the green pigment in plants, is the substance through which photosynthesis occurs. Without chlorophyll, plants couldn’t manufacture food.

Magnesium is an essential component of chlorophyll, with each molecule containing 6.7 percent Mg. Magnesium also acts as a phosphorus (P) carrier in plants, which is necessary for cell division and protein formation. Phosphorus uptake couldn’t occur without Mg, and vice versa. So, Mg is essential for phosphate metabolism, plant respiration and the activation of several enzyme systems.

Soils usually contain less Mg than calcium because Mg is not absorbed as tightly by clay and organic matter and is subject to leaching. The supply of available Mg has been and continues to be depleted in some soils, but growers are noticing good responses to fertilization with Mg.

Magnesium’s availability to plants often depends on soil pH. Research has shown that Mg availability to the plant decreases at low pH values. On acidic soils with a pH below about 5.8, excessive hydrogen and aluminum can decrease Mg availability and plant uptake. At high pH values (above 7.4), excessive calcium may greatly increase Mg uptake by plants.

Magnesium is mobile within the plant and easily translocates from older to younger tissues. When deficiencies occur, the older leaves become damaged first, which may include color loss between the leaf veins, beginning at the leaf margins or tips and progressing inward, giving the leaves a striped appearance.

 

Symptoms of deficiency can vary across crop species, but similarities exist for how nutrient insufficiency impacts plant tissue color and appearance. Nutrient deficiencies are commonly associated with the physical location on the plant
(i.e., whether the symptoms are primarily observed on older versus newly formed plant tissue), but these symptoms can spread as the severity of the deficiency progresses.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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