Month: July 2014

Service to humanity

Humanity is not about maintaining a gracious relationship between one another in the society but it is about building a bond amongst the society with the help of a sustainable values. Humanity is not about showing passion and empathy to each other at times of need but about regarding love in high esteem and kindness in all walks of life. Humanity is not just a word for symbolizing the human compassion and civilization but it goes beyond the horizons of human nature and his creations. It is all about using hearts along with the minds in all the endeavours of human kind.

Human kind has come a long way in learning the ways of building relations and creating civilizations in order to inhabit this world with livelihood full of love and harmony. Every human has a part in doing this great task of taking ahead the human race to a dignified and noble place on this planet. And this is where we all have to be proud of ourselves and pass this message on to the future generations.

Humanity, in general, is perceived as a charity. As the old saying goes, it begins at home. It spreads across the roads we travel, places we dwell, and people we meet. Humanity, not as many criticise, is scarce today. It is very much available in plenty. In fact, it has grown and evolved much better than centuries ago. From the individualistic aspect to a social, or even in a much larger perspective, humanity has thrived well in embracing and supporting the human race in many different forms.  Nevertheless, more and more people are still out there who are not that fortunate to live the humanity in its central point of its existence; they are out there to seek the rays of hope and love and brace the traces of passion and kindness.

In Young India (1924) Gandhiji wrote, I want to identify myself with everything that lives.” He had an incredible experience with the people, their lives not only in India but across South Africa and England as well. He believed that the salvation of his life is through serving the nation and people whom he loved beyond anything else in the world. His communication and connection with the people was so splendid that the whole world could visualize in him the love and care revealed by Jesus Christ and Buddha. The rich or poor, literate or educated, Indian or a foreigner, Gandhiji did the service to all and his principles stand even today as a bond connecting people belonging to various communities, nations and races. He remains dispelled every where around the world as the tallest symbol of humanity.

Today’s’ world, when we look at it in a social point of view, is full of greed, commotion, distress and distrust. Besides becoming more civilized and learning about the intricacies of human race and development, we humans are mired by the new wave of modernization and outcomes of transformation due to technology innovations and cultural incursions. As a result, we are preoccupied with our television, mobile phones, computers, etc., spending less time with the fellow humans. Our direct interactions with our children, neighbours, and friends are taken away by this massive modern hi-tech living style. We do realise many times a day the importance of humanity, love and kindness to other living beings but could not divulge them directly upon any one. We keep humanity in high regard in principle but have no time to give it a meaning in our own life.  We do not expend even a little time, a few seconds in the service of humanity, in the form of prayers or meditation or by any deeds. Throughout his life, Gandhiji was a humble servant of India and humanity.

“I believe in absolute oneness of God and, therefore, also of humanity. What though we have many bodies? We have but one soul. The rays of the sun are many through refraction. But they have the same source. It comprehends the whole of humanity. Its realization would thus mean the establishment of the Kingdom of Heaven on earth.”

All humans are one and only one, regardless of caste, creed, religion and race. This oneness would bring the world full of peace and harmony. The future of humanity lies in this oneness. As we narrow down the differences amongst us, broader the outlook on humanity arises; out of which the whole human race can live unto peace. For centuries, the world was gripped with the evils of untouchability, religious conflicts and the affluent’s dominance over the poor. In battling against the untouchability, Gandhiji had a vision of no less than a complete regeneration of humanity.  His ideology of non-violence itself is the mirror of humanity. In Harijan dated 20-7-1935, he wrote “Every murder or other injury, no matter for what cause, committed or inflicted on another is a crime against humanity.”

Gandhiji always held the service in high regard and in his own words, “I am endeavouring to see God through service of humanity; for I know that God is neither in heaven, nor down below, but in everyone.” Service to humanity has taken many forms in today’s society. From individuals to self-interested groups, small charity organizations to a larger corporate houses, private entities to non-governmental organizations, humanity has been served with a wide range of services that include  education, food, health measures, housing, accessibility assistance to the physically challenged, re-orientation programmes to the socially excluded, mentally challenged and victimized people from all sects of the society. People nowadays get more access, than yesteryears’, to the schemes and plans meant for the deprived and under-privileged.

One shall have the courage to face the hard-times in life. Human kind, right from its birth, always try hard to survive doing all sorts of work. There is no divide between the poor and the rich in doing the hard work. The rich works hard to become richer; poor works hard to earn his days’ bread. By whatever means we divide the humanity based on caste, creed, religion or colour, the hardship remains the same. But, social inequalities often tend to instil a divide among the people even in sharing the hardships. An ailing man may perhaps be seen as a social iniquity or a starving child may well be seen as a social illness. Our views on the society draw a major attention in today’s world. A sect or a group shall not be neglected for any grounds that thrash them down to pitiable conditions. Overlooking on any such issue would be a social disharmony and disorder.  Every human born on this planet do have all the rights what he ought to have. The dignity of the human kind lies in equality and justice for all. As Gandhiji put it “Dignity of human nature requires that we must face the storms of life.”

As the life is getting hard day by day, it is natural for any human to disregard the needy impoverished; it is natural for us to go with the business of the world everyday, not giving enough to the deprived; it is natural for us to forget the fact that it is our obligation to help the destitute.  Very rarely we turn to what the others do or want. As we focus more and more on our self, the social tensions and imbalance arouse and lastly the peace is getting disturbed.  We must remember Gandhiji’s words, “Not to believe in the possibility of permanent peace is to disbelieve in the godliness of human nature. “  We shall have to see god within ourselves and strive to believe others too in our selves. When we see everyone as a single embodiment of the God, peace would emerge within us; slowly, we would realize that such calmness getting inducted in our surroundings as well. And, thus could the whole society see the all within it in unison.

Needless to say how religious harmony takes an essential place in the nations’ peaceful conditions. Had we look in to the colour, race and religious sentiments of each and every person we meet every day, our living conditions would have worsened to an unbelievable amounts. Differences among ourselves had hurt us in the past. Divisiveness had cost us social inequality and economic disparity. It was only during the rigorous freedom struggle led by Gandhiji and the leaders like Nehru, Patel, Netaji, had we realized the need for oneness. Not only the nation’s liberty and integrity commanded the oneness. The whole of humanity lies in the oneness of all and the oneness of every caste, creed, religion and culture. While leading the freedom movement for India, Gandhiji had to face so many social evils such as Casteism, Atheism, Untouchability, Hindu-Muslim conflicts, Sati etc. that endanger the very existence of humanity. He was determined to forbid all these barriers and led the country to freedom. He was persistent in his ideology of oneness and service to humanity as a whole. “I can neither serve God nor humanity if as an Indian I do not serve India, and as a Hindu I do not serve Indian Muslims.” On this particular issue of conversion from one religion to another, he was very much ardent in maintaining humanity and its real spirit. At one time, he said, “I hold that proselytizing (religious conversions) under the cover of humanitarian work is, to say the least, unhealthy.”

“What… does Jesus mean to me? To me, He was one of the greatest teachers humanity has ever had.”These words from Gandhiji were not just for soliciting votes from various religious sects. They do not mean that he was propping up for the British rulers either. But, they signify the true purpose of the birth of Jesus who left (?) the world with the message of love and brotherhood. His life was a perfect example for how humanity has both the lighter and darker sides through which the whole of humanity and its nature can be adjudicated.


Thus, the service to humanity results in the oneness. It brings hope and life to the downtrodden and the disheartened. When peace and harmony becomes the main cause of every kind of service rendered to the nation and its people, it becomes the service to God. When an orphan gets a cuddling hand to light their life, it becomes a Godly gesture. When a deprived lives blissfully along with the rest of the humanity, it is the kingdom of God.

Organic Fertilizers

Sooner or later, every gardener discovers that for good results — whether in the vegetable garden, perennial border, or lawn — replenishing soil nutrients is necessary. And one of the key choices is whether to use organic or synthetic fertilizers. Synthetic fertilizers are manufactured. Organic fertilizers are derived from plants and animals, and from naturally occurring mineral fertilizers.

Why Use Organic Fertilizers?

One advantage of organic fertilizers is that their nutrients are doled out as a steady diet in sync with plant needs. Because the nutrients come from natural sources, a portion of them may be temporarily unavailable to plants until released by a combination of warmth and moisture — the same conditions plants need to grow. Released slowly, the nutrients from organic fertilizers are unlikely to burn plant roots or be leached away by water. And a single application may last a whole growing season.

You also might choose organic fertilizers for philosophical or environmental reasons. Organic fertilizers generally place fewer demands on energy resources, and they offer opportunities to recycle “garbage”.

The more concentrated a fertilizer (even an organic one), the less organic matter it contains. Fertilizers containing high concentrations of nitrogen, when used alone, can actually deplete soil organic matter, so if you use any such fertilizer, apply plenty of bulky organic matter, too. Dig materials such as straw, peat, compost, and leaves into the soil, or lay them on as mulch.

Naturally occurring mineral fertilizers are organic in the “not-synthetic” sense, but because they don’t contain organic matter, they’re not included in this list. Among them are Chilean nitrate, rock phosphate, greensand, and sulfate of potash magnesia.

Synthetic fertilizers do have some advantages. They cost less, are easier to transport, and are more uniform in nutrient content. All but controlled-release synthetic fertilizers are more quickly available to plants than organic fertilizers.

Why fertilize? Fertilizers are necessary make up for nutrients that are naturally carried down into the groundwater by rainfall, carried off into the air as gases, and carried into the kitchen by you. At least 16 nutrient elements are necessary for plant growth, but plants need three — nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (referred to by the elemental symbols N, P, and K) — in relatively large quantities. Most soils contain large reserves of the other 13 nutrients — especially calcium, magnesium, sulfur, iron, zinc, and manganese — that might also hitchhike along when you fertilize with “the big three.”

The only way to know for sure if your garden requires fertilizers is to have the soil tested. The cooperative extension services in most states test garden soil for a nominal fee. Also check telephone directories for “soil testing laboratories.”

When to Apply. The best times to apply organic fertilizers are early spring and fall — or even a few months — before planting, because that allows time for soil microbes to digest the organic matter and transform nutrients into forms plants can use.

How to Apply. When you apply organic fertilizers, there’s no need to dig them deep into the soil. Plants’s feeder roots are mostly near the soil surface, and low oxygen levels deep in the soil would retard microbial growth, slowing nutrient release from organic fertilizers. Make an exception to that no-dig rule if a soil test shows that phosphorus levels are low. This nutrient moves very slowly, so the only way to spread it quickly through the root zone is to mix it into the top 6 to 12 inches of soil.

Always wear a dust mask when you apply bonemeal, guano, or any other type of fertilizer that’s dusty. All dusts are potential lung irritants.

How Much to Apply. The actual amount to apply will vary, depending on the results of a soil test and the rate of nutrient release from a particular fertilizer. A rough rule is: Apply approximately 2 pounds of actual nitrogen (100 pounds of 10-10-10 contains 10 pounds of “actual” nitrogen) per 1,000 square feet, or 0.2 pounds per 100 square feet. Apply the other key nutrients plants take from soil — phosphorus and potassium — at about one-tenth this rate, unless a soil test specifies otherwise.

In catalogs and garden centers, you can find many different kinds of organic fertilizers. Other kinds are either custom blends, or materials that are available in limited quantities or only regionally. All fit into one of the basic categories — plant, animal, compost, or manure — that are further described below.

Plant Substances or By-products. Fertilizers that are plant substances or by-products are often rich in nitrogen, sometimes in potassium. These fertilizers can be considered renewable resources, but you should take into account the resources that may have been needed to grow as well as process or transport them. Some, such as beet pulp and cottonseed meal, are by-products of other industries.

  • Alfalfa meal and pellets contain nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. Some rose growers report good results when it is used as a mulch.
  • The dried, shredded remains of sugar beets after the juices and sugars are extracted are sold as organic fertilizer. They are rich in nitrogen.
  • Corn gluten is a high-nitrogen fertilizer with the unique ability to inhibit germination of seeds. With it you can feed your lawn and prevent crabgrass at the same time.
  • Cottonseed meal is made from the remains of cotton seeds after the oil is pressed out. It is a high-nitrogen fertilizer, but some growers have concerns about pesticide contamination of the meal. Cotton is a heavily sprayed crop, but pesticide-free cottonseed meal is available.
  • The extracts or pulverized parts of several seaweeds and kelp are good sources of minerals, potassium, and sometimes nitrogen. Follow application directions carefully when spraying on leaves, because sea plants can affect plant growth when sprayed directly on leaves.
  • Soybean meal is a high-nitrogen fertilizer that’s very similar to its better-known cousin, cottonseed meal. For the best price, look for it at animal feed-supply stores.

Animal processing by-products. Industries such as dairy farming and meat processing generate waste materials that are dried or minimally processed into fertilizers. None of these materials is derived from “certified organic” animals.

  • Blood meal is a rich source of nitrogen that is quickly available, so use with care.
  • Bonemeal is a rich source of phosphorus and calcium, and it supplies moderate amounts of nitrogen. “Steamed” bonemeal has less nitrogen but somewhat faster nutrient availability than “raw” bonemeal.
  • Fish products can be fairly rich in nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, but read the labels because nutrient concentrations vary.

Composts. These are the “Cadillacs” of organic fertilizers. Although making compost from a variety of raw materials is possible, the finished products are remarkably similar in their final concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. Composts generally contain a good balance and wide spectrum of nutrients, and they’re rich in humus — so rich in humus, in fact, that their actual nutrient concentrations are relatively low.

Composts are available commercially or can be homemade. They can be used along with other fertilizers. Ingredients in commercial composts include various kinds of animal manures and lawn and garden wastes. Homemade fertilizer is a way to deal with “waste” and make fertilizer simultaneously — and you always know what ingredients went into the finished product.

Manures. Manures used as organic fertilizers are derived from humans, animals, and in one case, insects; manures are available fresh or dried; however, use composted manure whenever possible.

The composition of various manures vary not only with the kind of animal source, but also with the age of the animal, the bedding, and method of manure storage and application.

  • Cow manure is low in nutrients, but plants can absorb them moderately quickly.
  • Manure from seabirds or bats are rich in nutrients, but not in organic matter. Highly soluble and quickly available nutrients are useful early in season to stimulate vegetative growth. But be careful: high-nitrogen guanos may burn plants. Several types are available: Texan bat (10-4-2), Ancient seabird (0-12-1), and Peruvian seabird (14-11-2) are examples. All guanos can be mixed with water, steeped, and applied as a liquid.
  • Commercially available insect manure, cricket manure, is relatively nutrient-rich.
  • Poultry manure is relatively high in nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium.
  • Composted sludges are rich in slowly available nitrogen. If industrial wastes are included, contaminants, such as heavy metals, are present. Though approved for vegetable gardening by the Environmental Protection Agency, these fertilizers are not acceptable for organic gardening.
  • Worm castings are similar to compost in their composition and are equally easy to produce at home. Because nutrient levels are so low in worm castings, they are — like compost — considered more a soil amendment than a fertilizer.

Much of the benefit of organic fertilizers comes not from the nutrients, but from the organic matter — the bulk — the fertilizers contain. Among other benefits, organic matter helps soils hold water and air, makes nutrients already in the soil more available, and helps prevent diseases.

Don’t spurn organic fertilizers that are low in nutrients, because they’re rich in organic matter that turns to valuable humus in the soil.
















Tips to lead a healthy life

Proximity to nature on one hand helps a person maintain physical health and remain disease-free. On the other hand, practice of yoga gives several health related benefits. Both healthy and unhealthy people can follow these simple tips and lead happy and healthy life.
Drink one or two glasses of water kept in a copper container after waking up in the morning. If copper container is not available, use pure fresh drinking water. Drink water (at least three cups) every two hours.

Practice brisk walking for 30 minutes daily after morning chores. Spend some time doing yoga asana, pranayama, surya namaskara, gardening, swimming or any other exercise of your choice.
Chew your food properly before swallowing and do not speak while eating. Eat sufficient food and do not fill the stomach completely. Take two meals a day, seven hours apart.

The best time for meals is before 11 a.m and 7 p.m. Soak grains, pulses and dry fruits overnight and use. The food should include 1/3rd portion of grains and pulses and the rest should include green vegetables. Take 20 percent cooked food and 80 percent raw food.Use low cholesterol oil for cooking and that too in very minimum quantity. Eat raw fruits, vegetables, sprouts, green leafy vegetables, seasonal fruits, salad, and fruit juice, coriander and mint chutney. The chapattis should be made with whole-wheat flour, eat unpolished rice and drink soup. Steam cooked food is also healthy.

Take lukewarm water mixed with lemon juice and honey instead of tea, take diluted curd or buttermilk instead of milk and jaggery in place of sugar.Sit in Vajrasana for 10 to 15 minutes after every meal.Use a hard bed to sleep on and a very thin flat pillow. Try to overcome all the worries before going to bed.
Lie down turning to your left after eating. There should be a gap of 15 minutes between meals and sleeping time.

Take deep breath and sit straight. It is a good practice to clean your stomach two to four times a day and take bath with cold or fresh water twice daily. Massage the hands after taking bath and try to dry the water. Then use a towel. Offer prayers twice daily; once before sunrise and again before bedtime.

Take salt, sugar, spices, pulses, clarified butter, ice cream, cooked food, potato etc. in limited quantity. Avoid wearing high-heeled sandals, shoes, watching television or cinema in excess and practicing tiring exercises.

Avoid tea, coffee, smoking, alcohol, and other such practices. Avoid refined flour and things made with it, polished rice, non-vegetarian food, processed food, adulterated food containing added colours, artificial food, etc.

Avoid consumption of dalda, oil, artificial food or cold drinks (soft drinks); do not eat unwillingly, in a worried state, when ill, or without feeling hungry. Do not eat very hot or very cold food. Protect yourself from noise, wind, and water. Use of harmful cosmetics, artificial fabrics, and soaps should be reduced.

Drink water half an hour before and after meals.Do not take sleeping pills, in case of sleeplessness, place a wet towel on the stomach (soak it in water and squeeze the water) and cover the body with a blanket or light quilt. Avoid meals at very late hours. Avoid being awake late in the night, or eating heavy or fried food.

Rinse the mouth thoroughly after every meal.
Brush your teeth in the morning and night. Chew carrot, radish, coconut, sugar cane, aniseed, and sesame etc. to strengthen the teeth.

Eat food rich in mineral and vitamin; including lemon juice, myrobalan, papaya, guava, tomato, carrot, etc.

Spinach benefits


Spinach is an extremely beneficial and tasty leafy vegetable. Spinach is found in all the parts of India and it is cooked in many different ways. In some places, people cook it along with potato and eat it in the form of dry vegetable, and in some places it is boiled, grinded and cooked with onions, garlic, tomato etc. Whatever may be the style of cooking, spinach is a healthy food. It is also cooked with the leaves of the rapeseed plant (sarson). This combination is very delicious and makes the spinach even more beneficial and healthy.

Spinach is the most beneficial among the leafy vegetables. Spinach is a very popular leafy vegetable. In winters it is produced in abundant quantity. It is also available in other seasons. Cold and humid climate is favorable for the growth of spinach.
Nutrients Found in Spinach:Spinach contains Vitamins A, B, C, Chlorophyll, Beta Carotene, and Sodium Riaphalebin etc. Spinach is cold in nature, but it destroys cold and phlegm. It also cures blood impurities and bile related problems.

Medicinal Qualities of Spinach:Spinach is beneficial in the form of food and also it is extremely beneficial in the form of medicine. It cures many diseases. Most children dislike it and do not want to eat it. Most ladies also show disinterest to cook it because it has to be cut and cooked and takes more time in cooking. I would like to ask these ladies a very simple question. You are willing to stand in long queues in doctor’s clinic, consume many harmful allopathic medicines and tolerate the side effects of these medicines, but you can’t spare a little time to cook this highly beneficial natural medicine known as spinach?

Nature has provided different types of vegetables and leaves to remain healthy. This is an invaluable gift from mother nature. We should not dislike these leaves and vegetables, but rather we should consume these vegetables whole heartedly. Leaves and vegetables are medicines in the form of food. They cure us in some form or the other and always keep us away from diseases. Spinach is one such natural medicine. It is not just a grass or some kind of ordinary leaf. We should develop knowledge about the medicinal qualities of spinach. The herbivorous animals eat grass and are much stronger than us. Spinach contains iron in abundant quantity. Consuming spinach regularly cures anemia. The Hemoglobin quantity in the blood rises sharply, the blood is purified and bones also become strong. Those who cannot eat spinach or are extremely weak should consume one glass of raw or boiled spinach juice everyday. The soup of any vegetable or leafy vegetable is easily digestible. It provides instant energy to a weak person, as it is easily digestible.

Spinach Cures Dental Problems:Consuming one glass of boiled spinach soup or eating it in the form of vegetable everyday cures dental problems. Soup of carrot and spinach cures the problem of bleeding gums. The gums become strong and the teeth last for a longer time.

Spinach is Beneficial in Urinary Disorders:Spinach is extremely beneficial in urinary disorders. Mix the spinach juice along with coconut water and consume it everyday, this helps excretes urine properly. Some people have the complaint of less or excess urination after meals, this problem is also cured because spinach has the quality of balancing the less or excess urination.

Spinach is Beneficial in Respiratory Diseases:Spinach is very beneficial in respiratory diseases. Drink the juice of raw spinach leaves and eat the raw leaves in the form of salad. This provides relief to patients suffering with respiratory problems. Spinach and honey cure the problems of throat, tuberculosis and asthma and remove the phlegm accumulated in the lungs. This gives energy to the lungs, so they start functioning normally. Spinach juice cures the burning sensation in the throat.

Spinach is the Best Medicine for Constipation:Spinach is the best medicine for constipation. It works as a purifier of the digestive system. Regular consumption of spinach juice automatically cleans the digestive system. It easily removes the toxic substances present in the intestine and also provides nutrition to the intestines. It is very important to remember that constipation is a serious disease and leads to almost all other diseases. If you want to remain healthy then eat spinach everyday.

Spinach is Useful for Pregnant Women:Green leaves of spinach are very useful for expecting mothers. The abundant quantity of iron is beneficial for both the child and the mother. Spinach contains vitamin A, which is extremely beneficial for pregnant women. It is very useful for increasing the breast milk. A pregnant woman should drink at least one glass of spinach juice everyday.

Precautions:Spinach leaves should be washed properly before cooking. Spinach contains oxalic acid. Kidney patients should consume spinach with a little care. It may cause wind (vayu) related problems; therefore it should not be consumed as much in the rainy season.

Nutrient Deficiencies in Plants

Nutrient Deficiencies in Plants

Sometimes plants look unhealthy and we assume they have been attacked by pests. This could however be early signs of nutrient deficiency.

If plants do not receive adequate proportion of essential minerals or they fail to thrive despite of proper growing conditions it signifies they are suffering from malnutrition. There are various minerals required for proper growth and health of a plant. Excess of these nutrients can be harmful as well and may show toxicity symptoms. This implies you need to be very careful while feeding plants with essential minerals and nutrients, as both excess and lack of them can be a cause of adverse effects.

Plant Nutrient Deficiency

Nutrients are divided in 2 categories – micronutrients and macronutrients. Minerals required in small traces are called micronutrients, while those required in large amounts are termed as macronutrients. Following tables give information about various nutrients, their deficiency & toxicity symptoms, and treatment for respective nutrient deficiency:


BORON: stimulates cell wall and flower formation, cell division and pollination; enables sugar transportation.Rotting of roots; death of growing points; uneven ripening; young leaves turn red, brown or scorched; death of buds.Margins and leaf tips will turn brown and die.Apply household borax. This should be done at a rate of 1 tablespoon of borax to 12 quarts of water.
IRON: necessary for legume nitrogen fixation; regulates respiration of plant cells; helps in chlorophyll formation; used for enzymatic activity.Necrotic spots; discoloring of leaves; young leaves develop chlorosis; yellowing of veins in young leaves; poor colored fruits.Bronzing of leaves with brown spots.Add chelated iron, bone meal, iron sulfate or inorganic amendments.
COPPER: regulates cell wall construction, cell growth and division; stimulate enzymatic activity required for nitrogen and carbohydrate metabolism.Brown area near tips of a leaf; small leaves with necrotic spots; root growth stops; leaves are dark green with stunted plants.Root growth stops; an iron deficiencymay be induced.Apply calcium rich fertilizers like calcium sulfate, foliar application of copper; treatment of seeds with copper compounds.
MANGANESE: stimulate enzymatic activity; promote energy cycle; helps in chloroplast production; enhances root growth and fruit development.Leaves show scorching and have reduced width; total yellowing of young leaves or between leaf veins.Shows iron deficiency symptoms; brown spots on older leaves; blotchy leaf tissue.Add manganese sulfate inorganic amendments.
MOLYBDENUM: helps innitrogen fixation and in reducing absorbed nitrates into ammonia; required for protein synthesis and enhances photosynthesis.Problem in brassica family like cauliflower showing elongated twisted leaves; head can fail to form; restricted flower formationNot so common. Excess intake will appear as copper/iron deficiency.Add lime before sowing seeds.
ZINC: used in synthesis of chlorophyll; stimulates enzymatic activity; essential for hormone balance especially auxin.New leaves are small and yellow; shoots may show resetting followed by dieback; short internodes; missing leaf blades; terminal leaves may be rosetted.Very rare. Shows signs of iron deficiency.Use aged organic manure, acidity generating fertilizers and organic compounds like zinc chelate etc.


NITROGEN: responsible for production of nucleic acids and proteins to carry out reproduction and cell division. Major part of chlorophyll.Yellowing of older leaves; new leaves are smaller in size; branching is reduced; plants mature early and get stuntedPlants become dark green in color and are susceptible to lodging; plants are prone to drought stress; lack of fruit set; poor secondary shoot development.Short term: spray with fish emulsion; apply high nitrogen fertilizers.Long term: mulching with organic matter; apply aged compost; use soybean meal and manure once in spring.
PHOSPHOROUS: required for cell division, sugar and starch formation, and energy transfer. Strengthen stems; responsible for flowering and fruiting; helps plants to act as resistant to diseases and pests.Plant growth slows down; old leaves turn dark green or reddish – purple; leaf tips look burnt; thin stemsShows visual deficiency of nutrients like zinc, iron and manganese.Short term: spray with fish emulsion; apply aged compost and apply phosphorous rich fertilizers like super phosphate or bone meal.Long term: mix rock phosphate in soil.
CALCIUM: responsible for cell wall construction, cell growth, leaf and root development.New leaves are irregularly shaped or distorted; blossom-end rot in tomatoes; brown color of growing leaves and roots; tip burn in some plants like cabbage; premature shedding of fruits; leaves may stick togetherHigh calcium will cause precipitation of many micro-nutrients as a result they remain unavailable to plant; plant may showmagnesium deficiency symptoms.Add organic matter, agricultural lime to acidic soils.
POTASSIUM: responsible for activation of enzymes, stomata opening, root development, formation of sugar, electrolyte balance and transpiration. Also increases resistance of plants to diseases.Sick looking plants; curling of leaves; old leaves turn yellow and look scorched; undersized fruits; leaves may turn brown; weak branches and stems; poor fruiting and floweringCause nitrogen deficiency in plants; plants exhibitmagnesium and calcium deficiencysymptoms.Short term: spray with fish emulsion; use fertilizers like sulphate of potash, tomato feed.Long term: apply seawmeed, granite dust, manure or greensand.Hardwood ashes can be applied anytime.
MAGNESIUM: helps in production of ATP and synthesis of chlorophyll. Responsible for enzymatic actions.Older leaves turn yellow while leaf veins remain green; slow growth; leaf tip gets twisted.Shows sign of calcium orpotassium deficiency; necrotic spots in old leaves; veins in older leaves may turn brownApply foliar magnesium.
SULFUR: acts as enzyme activator and coenzyme; responsible for root growth.Shoots are stunted; new leaves are yellow in color; roots and stems appear small.Premature ageing.Add sulfur or potassium sulfate.

Above given treatments will help you to maintain a healthy crops, blooming fields, bringing you pride and peace.